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Encyclopaedia of North-East India (3 Vols.Set): Book by T. Raatan

Encyclopaedia of North-East India (3 Vols.Set)

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ISBN: 9788178350684    Publisher: Kalpaz Publications Year of publishing: 2006     Format:  Hardback No of Pages: 950        Language: English
Description About The Author:- T.Raatan is Director of Public Libraries, Itanagar. Well-conversant with the library science and originally from Arunachal, he has put in his sincere efforts in popularizing...Read more
Description About The Author:- T.Raatan is Director of Public Libraries, Itanagar. Well-conversant with the library science and originally from Arunachal, he has put in his sincere efforts in popularizing this subjects.Contents:- "Vol 1- Contents, Preface 9, Introduction 11, Section-I, ASSAM, 1. The Land and the People: A Background 21, Brief History • British Period • Assam Under Independent India •, Consequences of English Rule • (i) Systemof Education • (ii) Education, of Girl Child (iii) Financial Transformation in Assam • (iv) Internal, Regulation • (v) Means of Communication and Transporation • Impact, of Gandhi and His Movements in Assam • (i) Faith in Non-violence •, (ii) Communal Unity • (iii) Famous Montague-Chelmsford Reforms, 1918 • (iv) Holding of Assam Chatra Sanmilan • (v) Civil, Disobedience Satyagraha of 1929 • (vi) The Latter Phase of Movement., • (vii) Impact in the Hills • (viii) Jadonnang and Freedom Struggle •, (ix) The Movement of Rani Gaidinliu • (x) 1942 Movement • (xi), Attainment of India Freedom and Partitions., 2. Assam in Post-1947 Period 35, Problems After Partition: Inflow of Refugees • Difficulties of, Immigrants • Fresh Planning for National Development •, Disintegration of States • Emergence of Nagaland • Re-organisation, of the State of Assam • Targets under the Five Year Plans • (i), Introducing Five Year Plan • (ii) Five Year Plan from 1956-61 • (iii), Five Year Plan of April 1961 to 31 March 1966 • (iv) War for, Formation of Bangladesh • ASU Movement from1979-85 • (i) Subject, of Foreign Nationals • (ii) Success and the Downfall • (iii) Updating, of Rolls for Mangaldai • (iv) Severe Step of Agitation • (v), Arrangements for Mid-term Polls • (vi) The Second Phase of the, Protest., 3. Identity Crisis 47, Bengalis in Assam • Conclusion • The Nepalis as Foreigner/Indian •, (a) Socio-Legal Status of Nepalis in India • (b) Heterogeneous Nature, of Community of Bengalis • (c) Factors behind Migration from Nepal, 6 Encyclopaedia of North- East India, • (d) Less Backlash from Bourgeoisie • Bohiragatos--The Indian, Foreigners in Assam • The Marwaris in Assam • (a) Factors Behind, their Success • (b) Moneylenders' Role of Marwaris • (c) Relations, with Local Asamiyas • The Biharis as Hindi Speakers in Assam• Non-, Hindi Speaking Indians., 4. Positive Side of Assam Movement 83, The Description • (a) Historical Transformation • (b) Enhancing, Land Revenue • (c) Dominance of Dominant Class • (d) Use of, Persuasive Methods • (e) Neglible Identity Crisis • The Text of the, Memorandum Submitted to the Chief Election Commissioner by, Certain Distinguished Members of Parliament, 1979 • This extract, is about violence occurred during the Assam movement • They are, Burning the Bridges • RCPI • PTCA • JANATA-S •, INDEPENDENTS • Assam Accord 1985 (Memorandum of, Settlement) • Foreigners Issue • Safeguards and Economic, Development • Restoration ofNormalcy • The Aims and Objectives, of the AGP., 5. Dawn of Consciousness: 1978 to 1981 99, Byelections of 1979 • Various Organisations/Agencies and Leaders, Behind the Movement • Collapse of the Borbora Ministry • The, Movement Gains Strength • Mid-Term Election Issue •, Uncompromising Twin Leadership • Emergency in Assam and, Presidential Rule • Agents of Movement; Victims of Atrocities • Antisocial, Elements • Open Pledge in Public Meetings • Oil as an Effective, Measure • Violence and Victimisation in North Kamrup • Incidents of, Duliajan • 26th January Tragedy • Letter of the P.M. and the First, Round of Talks • Visit of Giani Zail Singh • AIPP Conference and, Third Round of Talks • Beginning on 24th March of the Blockade by, the Congress--I • Formation of All AssamMinorities Students'Union, (AAMSU) • State Government's Stand Against the Movement • Visit, of Prime Minister to Assam and Meghalaya • Suspension of Oil, Blockade • April andMayDevelopments • Protest by ForeignNationals, of Bangladesh • The Defeat of Government in Another Legal Battle •, Talks between theGovernment and Students •Development in October, andNovember, 1980 • Elections after the Emergency • The Atmosphere, of Terror • Ban on Press • Restoration of Oil Flow • Appeal of the, Taimur Government • Duration of Low Profile., 6. Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Set-up of Assam 131, Linguistic Position of Assamese • Script of the Language of Assam •, Literature of Assam • Special Features of Assamese Society., Contents 7, Section-II, MEGHALYA, 7. The Land and the People 145, Geographical Position of East Pakistan • (A) Nagaland (the Naga Hills-, Tuensang region) • (B) The North-East Frontier Agency • Eco-Political, Troubles • The Contributors (A) Capt williamson A. Sangma •, (B) Prof. G.G. Swell • (C) Mr. Stanley Nichols Roy., 8. Constitution, the Law and the Local Administration 163, The Seventy Third Amendment of 1992 and the State of Meghalaya •, The Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution., 9. Efficacy of Autonomous District Councils 177, Efficacy of ADCs in Meghalaya • (a) Judiciary • (b) Administrative, Control of the District Council Exercised by the State Government, through the Deputy Commissioner • (c) Provision of 12(a) and 12(b) •, (d) Relevance of 73rd Amendment • II. Politics behind Para 12A of, the Sixth Schedule • Analysis., 10. Old Tribal Set-up 189, (a) The Traditional Political Systems: A Generalised Approximation •, (i) Traditional political system of Khasis • (ii) Traditional Political, System of Jaintias • (iii) The Traditional Political System of the, Garos • (b) Incorporation, Colonial Intervention and Consequent, Distortion of the Traditional Political Systems • (c) Independence and, Integration: Sixth Schedule and the Traditional Political Institutions •, (d) Concluding Remarks., 11. Comparison of Functioning of Old and New Self-Governing, Bodies 203, 1. Full State Darbar i.e., Ka Darbar ka Hima Pyllum • 2. Dorbar of, Thirty Villages i.e. Ka Dorbar Raid or Ka Dorbar Laiphew Shnong • 3., Council called Ka Darbar Ki Kyntoit or Ka Darbar Pyllun • 4. Village, Level Darbar, i.e., Ka Darbar Shnong (Village or Local Darbar) • 5., Clan Council, i.e., Dorbar Kur • A Brief Description of the Dorbar, Shong and PRIs and Comparison between them • 1. Origin and the, Background • 2. Locality • 3. Criteria for Membership • 4. Institutional, Leaders • 5. Written/Unwritten Laws and Practices • 6. Area of, Functioning • 7. The Staff • 8. Party Politics • 9. Power, Autonomy, and Control • 10. Monetary Aspects • 11. Possessions • 12. Activities, • 13. Issue of Accountability • The Recommendations., 12. Women and the System of Local Self-governance 213, (A) The State of Meghalaya and The Constitution 73rd Amendment, Act • Reservation for Women and the 73rd Amendment Act •, 8 Encyclopaedia of North- East India, OrganisationsWorking forWomen in Meghalaya • 1. Political Parties, andWomen in Meghalaya • (B) Women in District, State and Central, Level Politics • (C) Summing Up., 13. Concept of New Class 229, Different Kinds of Political Pressures • Handling of these Pressures, by Bureaucracy • Results of Unfavourable Reaction to Political, Pressures • Sum Up., 14. Defects with Bureaucratic Functioning 241, Corruption in Functioning• I. Ethical Factor • II. Monetary Factor •, III. Political Factor • IV. Structural Factor • V. Soico-Cultural Factor, • Steps that can be Taken Corruption • I. Societal Structure • II. Financial, Measures • III Political Aspect • Need for Structural Reforms • Lack, of Efficiency I. Administrative Reasons • II. Political Reasons • III., Social Reasons • IV. Personal Factor • V. Financial Factor • D., Remedial Measures Against Inefficiency • (a) Administrative Steps. •, (b) Political Steps. • Steps for Improving Personal Standard andAbility., Index 259. Vol 2- Contents, Preface 9, Introduction 11, Section-I, ARUNACHAL PRADESH, 1. The Land and the People 21, I. District Kameng • II. District of Subansiri • District of Siang • IV., District of Lohit • (A) Groups Among the Mishmis • V. District of, Tirap • I. Socio-Economic Belt Grouping • II. The Social Set-up, Social, Hierarchy and Social Organisation • III. Cultural Belt Region., 2. Farming and Other Related Functions 75, Jhum Cultivation • Ownership of Lands • Pattern of Planting Crops, • Crop Calendar ofArunachal Pradesh • I. Paddy Crop • II. Traditional, Crop--Maize • III. Millet Crop • IV. Crops of Barley and Wheat • V., Growing ofMustard Seed • VI. Crop of Sugarcane • VII. Plantation of, Potato and Kochu • VIII. Chilly Crop • IX. Ginger Crop • X. Cotton, Crop • Improvement in Agriculture., 3. Resources Under Forestry 91, Total Area Covered Under Forest • Products from Forests • Forest, Administration., 4. Mineral Resources and Their Use 95, Natural Mineral Resources., 5. Economy and Trade 105, A. Brackground., 6. Education, Crafts and Skill-Upgradation 113, (A) Evaluation of Education Institutional • (B) Increase in Enrolment, of Students • (C) State's Full View of Literacy Levels • (D) Number, of Drop-Outs • (E) Training for Crafts • (F) Sactioning of Money and, Actual Expenditure., Section-II, MANIPUR, 7. The Land and the People 121, Small Autonomous Kingdoms • Perpetual Conflict among Kingdoms, • Unity Against Foreign Invasions • Kings without Palaces, 6 Encyclopaedia of North-East India, • Justification for Monarchy or Kingship • Rulers and Ruled Partners, in Social Set Up • Chaos and Its Reasons • Rajarshi theGreat Integrator, • Emergence of Ras Leela • Second Chaos in Manipur • Connections, with British Empire • Succession of Chandrakirti • Spread of British, Empire • System of Posting of Resident • Fight between, Brothers • Massacre of Innocents Battle of Khongjom by Brajabasi, • British Domination • Gap Created between Valley and Hills • Gap, between Tribes and Valley People--a Passing Phase •Was Manipur, Part of India? • Common Beliefs and Culture • Manipuri Culture, Derived from Vedic Civilisation • Connected with Mainstream of, Indian Thought and History • Merger in India-Popular Movement, • Expectations • Fuel Put to Fire • Criteria for Formation of NewStates, • Gratitude to Indira Gandhi's Leadership People's Attitude Towards, Main Current of Indian Politics • Plain vs. Hills • Origin and, Background of Manipuris in Hills., 8. Education, Literature and Linguistic 147, Education • Sculptures • Language and Literature • Dictionary •, Historical and CulturalWorks • Essay and Translation Works • Prose, and Criticism., 9. Administrative and Political Struggle 157, (A) Movement for the Setting up of a Responsible Governments (B), Split in the Party (C) Birth of Manipuri State Congress Party (D) Party, Election and Afterwards (E) Setting up of Manipur State Council (F), Interim Council (E) Franchise Sub-Committee • Merger of Manipur, in Indian Union., 10. Principal Deities of the State 177, Main Goddesses • Old Manipuri Religion • Pakhangba and Sanamahi, Conformity with Bhagavat Gita Epic • No Difference between, Traditional and Hindu Religion • Koubru the First Settler Cremation, of Dead Body was Prevalent., 11. Popular Manipuri Dances 185, History and Evolution ofManipuri Dances • Lai Haraoba Festival • Cult, ofMaibis, i.e., Priests • Promotion of Sports and Atheletics • Expansion, of Vaisnavic Cult • Manipuri Language Ignored • Lord Cheitanya, Never Envisaged Cultural Empire • Different Categories of Manipuri, Dance • Some Aspects of Cholom • Tradition of Rasleela • Different, Categories of Ras • Ancient Traditional Rasleela • Music for Rasleela, • Fashion of Collective Patronage of Rasleela • Tribal Dances of, Manipur • The Manipuri Nat-Sankirtan Dance • Numerous Dance, Institutions., 12. Economic Development of Manipur 203, Agriculture Main Profession • Need for Vigorous Programme of, Afforestation • High Time for Geological Survey • Urgency for, Contents 7, Constructive Activities • Need for Full Available Cultivable Land, • Some Suggestions • Irrigation Deserves Priority • To Check Floods, Rivers Need be Controlled • Fishery Deserves Special Attention, • Industrial Developments • Intentions not Matched with Programmes, • Case for Special Central Assistance • Early Development of Roads, for Economic Growth • Extension of Railways Upto Manipur • Cycle, Industry •Watch Factory • Other Industries • Vast Possibilities for Tea, Plantation • Spinning Mills • Importance of Weaving • Sugar and, Cornflake., Section-III, MIZORAM, 13. The Land and the People 219, (A) Culture and Tradition ofMizos • (B) Ethnic Footings • (C) Religion, • (D) Psycho-Social Responsible Factors • (E) Linguistic Aspects •, (F) Monetary Factors • (G) Geographical Situations of Mizoram • (H), Conflicts between Regional Elites., 14. Political Parties in the State 245, (A) TheMizoUnion, the pro-Congress Regional Party • (B)The United, Mizo Freedom Organisation (UMFO) • (C) The Secessionist Mizo, National Front • (D) The People's Conference of Mizoram • (E) The, Indian National Congress (Mizoram)., 15. Impact of Terrorism on Politics and Administration 267, (A) Leading Incidents • (B) Declaration of Freedom • (C) Sporadic, Cases • (D) Factors Behind the Insurgency • (E) Role of Ex-Servicemen, in this Act • (F) NewOutbreak • (G) Counter-Insurgency Arrangements, • (H) Movement Restrictions, Curfew and Other Orders in State • (I), Forming of Villages Clusters • (J) Administrative Machinery • (K), Relief Measures by the Government • (L) Public Participation in, Administrative • (M) Security Post in PPVs • (N) Grouping into Further, Interiors., 16. Administrative Set-up 287, (A) Bordoloi Sub-Committee of the Constituent Assembly • (B) Sixth, Schedule of the Constitution • (C) Barve Report on District Councils •, (D) States Reorganisation Commission of 1995 • (E) Vaghaiwalla, Committee forDistrictCouncils • (F)MonetaryAid to District Councils, • (G) Laws • (H) Overall Performance of District Councils • (I), Reorganisation of Hill Areas • (J) Dissolution of the Mizo District, Council • (K) Three Fresh District Councils., 17. New Plannings 305, (A) Static Economy • (B) Consequences of Partition • (C) Agriculture, • (D) Post-Independence Time and Developments • (E) Industrial, 8 Encyclopaedia of North-East India, Development • (F) Transport and Other Facilities of Infrastructure •, (G) Waterways Development • (H) Air Service for Mizos • (I) Postal, Service Communications • (J) Medical Provisions • (K)Water Supply, for Drinking Purpose • (L) Educational Achievements • (M), Newspapers in the State • (N) Voluntary Organisations for Education, • (O) Community Development Programmes • (P) Plan Expenditure, for Mizoram • (Q) Finding of Krishnaswamy and Tarlok Singh., Index 331. Vol 3- Contents, Preface 7, Introduction 9, Section-I, SIKKIM, 1. Land and the People 17, Demographical Details • Various Ethnic Groups • Monastery and, the Religion of Lamaism• Agricultural and Industrial Development., 2. Socio-cultural and Linguistic Set-up of Sikkim 27, Linguistic aspects • Social Life., 3. Political and Administrative Developments 35, Pre-merger Times • Development in the Post-merger Period., 4. Background and Post-Merger Achievements in Education 43, Background • State of Literacy • Facilities Regarding Education, • Institutions/Agencies of Education • Educational Set up, • Schooling at Primary Level • Schooling at Secondary Level, • Teaching Staff • Achievement in the Field of Education, • Educational Details of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Students • State of Higher Education in Sikkim • Current Position., 5. Emergence of a New Class 51, I. Theories of Class II. Emergence of New Class III. • Old Class, Structure • Modern Class • New Class Hierarchy • Involvement of, New Class in Politics., Section-II, NAGALAND, 6. Land and the People 77, (a) Formation of State, (b) Background and Geographical Set Up, (c) Various Districts of the State • Education • Language •, Agricultural and Industrial Developments • Religion., 7. Pre- and Post-Reorganisation Era 93, British Penetration into Nagaland • After Independence, Developments • Creation of Nagaland as a State • Development of, the State • Administration of the State., 6 Encyclopaedia of North-East India, 8. Society and Customs 101, I. Culture II. Customs about Marriages • Tradition of Head Hunting, • Background., 9. Women in Naga Tribal Society 113, Introduction • I. Social Status II.Women Leadership • Jungle Stay, and Arrest • Release from the Jail • Social Reforms of Gandhiji., 10. Naga Festivals and Songs 127, I. Festivals II. Songs and Folks III. Folk Stories., 11. New Planning in 2001 137, Section-III, TRIPURA, 12. Land and the People 141, I. Ancient Period • Medieval Period III. Modern Period • The, Janamangal Samity • Language • Education • Status of Women., 13. Measures for Land Reforms and Their Implementation 171, Elimination of Intermediaries • ReformRelated to Tenancy • Ceiling, over Land-holdings • Prevention of Fragmentation of Land • Special, Provisions for Scheduled Tribes Category • Land Records ofRights., 14. Mythology and Archaeology 183, (A) Vaisnavism (B) Saivism in Tripura (C) Worship of Sakti (D), Small Sects (E) IconWorship (F) Cult of Vishnu Images (G) Icons, of Saiva (H) Images of Sakti (I)Miscellaneous Images (J) Buddhism, (K) Viharas in Archaeology • Stupas • Iconography., 15. Rich Land and Other Resources 195, (A) Distribution of Area and Population in Districts (B) Districtbased, Distribution of Land Resources in the State (C) Livestock, Population (D) Fisheries Business (E) Forests (F) Shifting, Cultivation vis-a-vis Soil Conservation (G) North Eastern Council, (NEC) Scheme of Fifth Plan (H) Power/Energy (I) Human, Resources in the State., 16. New Planning 205, (A) Agriculture (B) Industry (C) Transport and Communications, (D) Social Services (E) The Bane of Unemployment • Tripura's, Five Year Plan (A) The Perspective on the Plan (B) The Approach, to Future Planning., Index 221Contents:- "Vol 1- Contents, Preface 9, Introduction 11, Section-I, ASSAM, 1. The Land and the People: A Background 21, Brief History • British Period • Assam Under Independent India •, Consequences of English Rule • (i) Systemof Education • (ii) Education, of Girl Child (iii) Financial Transformation in Assam • (iv) Internal, Regulation • (v) Means of Communication and Transporation • Impact, of Gandhi and His Movements in Assam • (i) Faith in Non-violence •, (ii) Communal Unity • (iii) Famous Montague-Chelmsford Reforms, 1918 • (iv) Holding of Assam Chatra Sanmilan • (v) Civil, Disobedience Satyagraha of 1929 • (vi) The Latter Phase of Movement., • (vii) Impact in the Hills • (viii) Jadonnang and Freedom Struggle •, (ix) The Movement of Rani Gaidinliu • (x) 1942 Movement • (xi), Attainment of India Freedom and Partitions., 2. Assam in Post-1947 Period 35, Problems After Partition: Inflow of Refugees • Difficulties of, Immigrants • Fresh Planning for National Development •, Disintegration of States • Emergence of Nagaland • Re-organisation, of the State of Assam • Targets under the Five Year Plans • (i), Introducing Five Year Plan • (ii) Five Year Plan from 1956-61 • (iii), Five Year Plan of April 1961 to 31 March 1966 • (iv) War for, Formation of Bangladesh • ASU Movement from1979-85 • (i) Subject, of Foreign Nationals • (ii) Success and the Downfall • (iii) Updating, of Rolls for Mangaldai • (iv) Severe Step of Agitation • (v), Arrangements for Mid-term Polls • (vi) The Second Phase of the, Protest., 3. Identity Crisis 47, Bengalis in Assam • Conclusion • The Nepalis as Foreigner/Indian •, (a) Socio-Legal Status of Nepalis in India • (b) Heterogeneous Nature, of Community of Bengalis • (c) Factors behind Migration from Nepal, 6 Encyclopaedia of North- East India, • (d) Less Backlash from Bourgeoisie • Bohiragatos--The Indian, Foreigners in Assam • The Marwaris in Assam • (a) Factors Behind, their Success • (b) Moneylenders' Role of Marwaris • (c) Relations, with Local Asamiyas • The Biharis as Hindi Speakers in Assam• Non-, Hindi Speaking Indians., 4. Positive Side of Assam Movement 83, The Description • (a) Historical Transformation • (b) Enhancing, Land Revenue • (c) Dominance of Dominant Class • (d) Use of, Persuasive Methods • (e) Neglible Identity Crisis • The Text of the, Memorandum Submitted to the Chief Election Commissioner by, Certain Distinguished Members of Parliament, 1979 • This extract, is about violence occurred during the Assam movement • They are, Burning the Bridges • RCPI • PTCA • JANATA-S •, INDEPENDENTS • Assam Accord 1985 (Memorandum of, Settlement) • Foreigners Issue • Safeguards and Economic, Development • Restoration ofNormalcy • The Aims and Objectives, of the AGP., 5. Dawn of Consciousness: 1978 to 1981 99, Byelections of 1979 • Various Organisations/Agencies and Leaders, Behind the Movement • Collapse of the Borbora Ministry • The, Movement Gains Strength • Mid-Term Election Issue •, Uncompromising Twin Leadership • Emergency in Assam and, Presidential Rule • Agents of Movement; Victims of Atrocities • Antisocial, Elements • Open Pledge in Public Meetings • Oil as an Effective, Measure • Violence and Victimisation in North Kamrup • Incidents of, Duliajan • 26th January Tragedy • Letter of the P.M. and the First, Round of Talks • Visit of Giani Zail Singh • AIPP Conference and, Third Round of Talks • Beginning on 24th March of the Blockade by, the Congress--I • Formation of All AssamMinorities Students'Union, (AAMSU) • State Government's Stand Against the Movement • Visit, of Prime Minister to Assam and Meghalaya • Suspension of Oil, Blockade • April andMayDevelopments • Protest by ForeignNationals, of Bangladesh • The Defeat of Government in Another Legal Battle •, Talks between theGovernment and Students •Development in October, andNovember, 1980 • Elections after the Emergency • The Atmosphere, of Terror • Ban on Press • Restoration of Oil Flow • Appeal of the, Taimur Government • Duration of Low Profile., 6. Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Set-up of Assam 131, Linguistic Position of Assamese • Script of the Language of Assam •, Literature of Assam • Special Features of Assamese Society., Contents 7, Section-II, MEGHALYA, 7. The Land and the People 145, Geographical Position of East Pakistan • (A) Nagaland (the Naga Hills-, Tuensang region) • (B) The North-East Frontier Agency • Eco-Political, Troubles • The Contributors (A) Capt williamson A. Sangma •, (B) Prof. G.G. Swell • (C) Mr. Stanley Nichols Roy., 8. Constitution, the Law and the Local Administration 163, The Seventy Third Amendment of 1992 and the State of Meghalaya •, The Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution., 9. Efficacy of Autonomous District Councils 177, Efficacy of ADCs in Meghalaya • (a) Judiciary • (b) Administrative, Control of the District Council Exercised by the State Government, through the Deputy Commissioner • (c) Provision of 12(a) and 12(b) •, (d) Relevance of 73rd Amendment • II. Politics behind Para 12A of, the Sixth Schedule • Analysis., 10. Old Tribal Set-up 189, (a) The Traditional Political Systems: A Generalised Approximation •, (i) Traditional political system of Khasis • (ii) Traditional Political, System of Jaintias • (iii) The Traditional Political System of the, Garos • (b) Incorporation, Colonial Intervention and Consequent, Distortion of the Traditional Political Systems • (c) Independence and, Integration: Sixth Schedule and the Traditional Political Institutions •, (d) Concluding Remarks., 11. Comparison of Functioning of Old and New Self-Governing, Bodies 203, 1. Full State Darbar i.e., Ka Darbar ka Hima Pyllum • 2. Dorbar of, Thirty Villages i.e. Ka Dorbar Raid or Ka Dorbar Laiphew Shnong • 3., Council called Ka Darbar Ki Kyntoit or Ka Darbar Pyllun • 4. Village, Level Darbar, i.e., Ka Darbar Shnong (Village or Local Darbar) • 5., Clan Council, i.e., Dorbar Kur • A Brief Description of the Dorbar, Shong and PRIs and Comparison between them • 1. Origin and the, Background • 2. Locality • 3. Criteria for Membership • 4. Institutional, Leaders • 5. Written/Unwritten Laws and Practices • 6. Area of, Functioning • 7. The Staff • 8. Party Politics • 9. Power, Autonomy, and Control • 10. Monetary Aspects • 11. Possessions • 12. Activities, • 13. Issue of Accountability • The Recommendations., 12. Women and the System of Local Self-governance 213, (A) The State of Meghalaya and The Constitution 73rd Amendment, Act • Reservation for Women and the 73rd Amendment Act •, 8 Encyclopaedia of North- East India, OrganisationsWorking forWomen in Meghalaya • 1. Political Parties, andWomen in Meghalaya • (B) Women in District, State and Central, Level Politics • (C) Summing Up., 13. Concept of New Class 229, Different Kinds of Political Pressures • Handling of these Pressures, by Bureaucracy • Results of Unfavourable Reaction to Political, Pressures • Sum Up., 14. Defects with Bureaucratic Functioning 241, Corruption in Functioning• I. Ethical Factor • II. Monetary Factor •, III. Political Factor • IV. Structural Factor • V. Soico-Cultural Factor, • Steps that can be Taken Corruption • I. Societal Structure • II. Financial, Measures • III Political Aspect • Need for Structural Reforms • Lack, of Efficiency I. Administrative Reasons • II. Political Reasons • III., Social Reasons • IV. Personal Factor • V. Financial Factor • D., Remedial Measures Against Inefficiency • (a) Administrative Steps. •, (b) Political Steps. • Steps for Improving Personal Standard andAbility., Index 259. Vol 2- Contents, Preface 9, Introduction 11, Section-I, ARUNACHAL PRADESH, 1. The Land and the People 21, I. District Kameng • II. District of Subansiri • District of Siang • IV., District of Lohit • (A) Groups Among the Mishmis • V. District of, Tirap • I. Socio-Economic Belt Grouping • II. The Social Set-up, Social, Hierarchy and Social Organisation • III. Cultural Belt Region., 2. Farming and Other Related Functions 75, Jhum Cultivation • Ownership of Lands • Pattern of Planting Crops, • Crop Calendar ofArunachal Pradesh • I. Paddy Crop • II. Traditional, Crop--Maize • III. Millet Crop • IV. Crops of Barley and Wheat • V., Growing ofMustard Seed • VI. Crop of Sugarcane • VII. Plantation of, Potato and Kochu • VIII. Chilly Crop • IX. Ginger Crop • X. Cotton, Crop • Improvement in Agriculture., 3. Resources Under Forestry 91, Total Area Covered Under Forest • Products from Forests • Forest, Administration., 4. Mineral Resources and Their Use 95, Natural Mineral Resources., 5. Economy and Trade 105, A. Brackground., 6. Education, Crafts and Skill-Upgradation 113, (A) Evaluation of Education Institutional • (B) Increase in Enrolment, of Students • (C) State's Full View of Literacy Levels • (D) Number, of Drop-Outs • (E) Training for Crafts • (F) Sactioning of Money and, Actual Expenditure., Section-II, MANIPUR, 7. The Land and the People 121, Small Autonomous Kingdoms • Perpetual Conflict among Kingdoms, • Unity Against Foreign Invasions • Kings without Palaces, 6 Encyclopaedia of North-East India, • Justification for Monarchy or Kingship • Rulers and Ruled Partners, in Social Set Up • Chaos and Its Reasons • Rajarshi theGreat Integrator, • Emergence of Ras Leela • Second Chaos in Manipur • Connections, with British Empire • Succession of Chandrakirti • Spread of British, Empire • System of Posting of Resident • Fight between, Brothers • Massacre of Innocents Battle of Khongjom by Brajabasi, • British Domination • Gap Created between Valley and Hills • Gap, between Tribes and Valley People--a Passing Phase •Was Manipur, Part of India? • Common Beliefs and Culture • Manipuri Culture, Derived from Vedic Civilisation • Connected with Mainstream of, Indian Thought and History • Merger in India-Popular Movement, • Expectations • Fuel Put to Fire • Criteria for Formation of NewStates, • Gratitude to Indira Gandhi's Leadership People's Attitude Towards, Main Current of Indian Politics • Plain vs. Hills • Origin and, Background of Manipuris in Hills., 8. Education, Literature and Linguistic 147, Education • Sculptures • Language and Literature • Dictionary •, Historical and CulturalWorks • Essay and Translation Works • Prose, and Criticism., 9. Administrative and Political Struggle 157, (A) Movement for the Setting up of a Responsible Governments (B), Split in the Party (C) Birth of Manipuri State Congress Party (D) Party, Election and Afterwards (E) Setting up of Manipur State Council (F), Interim Council (E) Franchise Sub-Committee • Merger of Manipur, in Indian Union., 10. Principal Deities of the State 177, Main Goddesses • Old Manipuri Religion • Pakhangba and Sanamahi, Conformity with Bhagavat Gita Epic • No Difference between, Traditional and Hindu Religion • Koubru the First Settler Cremation, of Dead Body was Prevalent., 11. Popular Manipuri Dances 185, History and Evolution ofManipuri Dances • Lai Haraoba Festival • Cult, ofMaibis, i.e., Priests • Promotion of Sports and Atheletics • Expansion, of Vaisnavic Cult • Manipuri Language Ignored • Lord Cheitanya, Never Envisaged Cultural Empire • Different Categories of Manipuri, Dance • Some Aspects of Cholom • Tradition of Rasleela • Different, Categories of Ras • Ancient Traditional Rasleela • Music for Rasleela, • Fashion of Collective Patronage of Rasleela • Tribal Dances of, Manipur • The Manipuri Nat-Sankirtan Dance • Numerous Dance, Institutions., 12. Economic Development of Manipur 203, Agriculture Main Profession • Need for Vigorous Programme of, Afforestation • High Time for Geological Survey • Urgency for, Contents 7, Constructive Activities • Need for Full Available Cultivable Land, • Some Suggestions • Irrigation Deserves Priority • To Check Floods, Rivers Need be Controlled • Fishery Deserves Special Attention, • Industrial Developments • Intentions not Matched with Programmes, • Case for Special Central Assistance • Early Development of Roads, for Economic Growth • Extension of Railways Upto Manipur • Cycle, Industry •Watch Factory • Other Industries • Vast Possibilities for Tea, Plantation • Spinning Mills • Importance of Weaving • Sugar and, Cornflake., Section-III, MIZORAM, 13. The Land and the People 219, (A) Culture and Tradition ofMizos • (B) Ethnic Footings • (C) Religion, • (D) Psycho-Social Responsible Factors • (E) Linguistic Aspects •, (F) Monetary Factors • (G) Geographical Situations of Mizoram • (H), Conflicts between Regional Elites., 14. Political Parties in the State 245, (A) TheMizoUnion, the pro-Congress Regional Party • (B)The United, Mizo Freedom Organisation (UMFO) • (C) The Secessionist Mizo, National Front • (D) The People's Conference of Mizoram • (E) The, Indian National Congress (Mizoram)., 15. Impact of Terrorism on Politics and Administration 267, (A) Leading Incidents • (B) Declaration of Freedom • (C) Sporadic, Cases • (D) Factors Behind the Insurgency • (E) Role of Ex-Servicemen, in this Act • (F) NewOutbreak • (G) Counter-Insurgency Arrangements, • (H) Movement Restrictions, Curfew and Other Orders in State • (I), Forming of Villages Clusters • (J) Administrative Machinery • (K), Relief Measures by the Government • (L) Public Participation in, Administrative • (M) Security Post in PPVs • (N) Grouping into Further, Interiors., 16. Administrative Set-up 287, (A) Bordoloi Sub-Committee of the Constituent Assembly • (B) Sixth, Schedule of the Constitution • (C) Barve Report on District Councils •, (D) States Reorganisation Commission of 1995 • (E) Vaghaiwalla, Committee forDistrictCouncils • (F)MonetaryAid to District Councils, • (G) Laws • (H) Overall Performance of District Councils • (I), Reorganisation of Hill Areas • (J) Dissolution of the Mizo District, Council • (K) Three Fresh District Councils., 17. New Plannings 305, (A) Static Economy • (B) Consequences of Partition • (C) Agriculture, • (D) Post-Independence Time and Developments • (E) Industrial, 8 Encyclopaedia of North-East India, Development • (F) Transport and Other Facilities of Infrastructure •, (G) Waterways Development • (H) Air Service for Mizos • (I) Postal, Service Communications • (J) Medical Provisions • (K)Water Supply, for Drinking Purpose • (L) Educational Achievements • (M), Newspapers in the State • (N) Voluntary Organisations for Education, • (O) Community Development Programmes • (P) Plan Expenditure, for Mizoram • (Q) Finding of Krishnaswamy and Tarlok Singh., Index 331. Vol 3- Contents, Preface 7, Introduction 9, Section-I, SIKKIM, 1. Land and the People 17, Demographical Details • Various Ethnic Groups • Monastery and, the Religion of Lamaism• Agricultural and Industrial Development., 2. Socio-cultural and Linguistic Set-up of Sikkim 27, Linguistic aspects • Social Life., 3. Political and Administrative Developments 35, Pre-merger Times • Development in the Post-merger Period., 4. Background and Post-Merger Achievements in Education 43, Background • State of L
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